In Europe, as in the rest of the world, human activities are causing rapid biodiversity loss. Over the last two decades, the EU has been trying to tackle this in various ways, including through the Natura 2000 Network of protected areas. This includes over 27 000 protected areas, covering over million km2, making it the largest coordinated network of protected areas in the world. The Natura 2000 Network creates a framework for mainstreaming conservation into a range of sectors. The European Commission led the development of the Natura 2000 Network.
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European countries are planning massive investments in renewable energy, which will mean that many more transmission lines will be needed to transport the energy produced. This is essential for reducing carbon emissions, but without careful planning, transmission lines can create a range of risks for biodiversity. The Renewables Grid Initiative (RGI) was launched in 2009 as a neutral platform, enabling Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and NGOs from across Europe to come together as equal partners.
In the Netherlands, a coalition of multinational and large Dutch companies is taking steps to make their impact on natural and social capital visible throughout their entire value chain, with the help of civil society organizations. This unique initiative of companies, NGOs and the government teaming-up. Their ambition is formalized in a "Green Deal" signed by IUCN-NL, True Price, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Netherlands and the Dutch government. The Green Deal is linked to the global Natural Capital Protocol.
During the “Urban National Parks in Emerging Countries” (UNPEC) research program, funded by the ANR (the french National Research Agency), the Urban Protected Areas Network have worked in partnership with the national parks and the cities in Rio, Cape Town, Mumbai, Nairobi. We have identified three main types of park’s dynamics:
The „Let’s get wild“ project is about wilderness project weeks in Austria´s secondary high schools. This wilderness school project will support the Austrian regional development plan by promoting the acceptance of national parks within the younger population. Through multimedia and interdisciplinary environmental education, the role of the Austrian National Parks in the protection and preservation of the natural, recreational value, biodiversity and climate protection is emphasized.
The Sanctuary is a marine area of 87,500 sq. km subject to an agreement between Italy, Monaco and France for the protection of marine mammals, which live in it. What makes the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals unique is the fact that it is a site managed by three different authorities and includes coastal areas and international waters that form a large ecosystem of major scientific, socio-economic, cultural and educational interest.
Natura 2000 is the world's largest coordinated network of protected areas, established by two pieces of EU environmental legislation: the so-called Birds and Habitats Directives. The Natura 2000 network now comprises over 27000 sites across the 28 EU Member States. It covers over million km², more than 18% of the EU terrestrial area and over 4% of the marine area where EU Member States have national jurisdiction. The EU Birds and Habitats Directives and Natura 2000 are the cornerstone of the EU biodiversity policy and the backbone of its Green Infrastructure.
In order to enhance the implementation of the Article 8j of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to better safeguard the rights of the indigenous Saami people and to secure participation and involvement of the Saami people in protected area management planning process, the application of the voluntary Akwé: Kon Guidelines of the CBD were piloted in the development of the Management Plan of Hammastunturi Wilderness Area in Finnish Lapland.
The ENPI-MED Programme – a financial instrument of EU for enhancing the North-South cooperation in the Mediterranean area – has funded in 2012 the MEET (Mediterranean Experience of Eco-Tourism) project, which has established a Network of 20 Protected Areas (from 8 Mediterranean countries) that are testing a Catalogue of eco-tourism packages addressed to foreign markets. The project is led by Federparchi – Europarc Italy with a partnership of the main PA policy-maker Institutions of 6 Mediterranean countries.
Protected areas provide multiple socio-economic benefits. However, these benefits are often not assessed and remain unappreciated by decision-makers and the wider public alike. Therefore using public funding to establish and maintain protected areas is often of low priority. Information about the socio-economic benefits of protected areas, such as streams of revenue to local economies from recreation and tourism, can provide valuable support to maintaining and managing protected areas. The United States National Park Service (U.S.