Whilst the Earth’s diversity of species and habitats must be preserved first and foremost for their intrinsic value, the solution (from a socio-economic perspective) lies in recognizing and valuing nature for the ecological services it provides – upon which societies and economies are built. Nature, or “Natural Capital” – biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services – must be preserved and restored as the foundation of human societies and economies.
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The Mutual Gains Approach (MGA) to negotiation is a process model that is based on experimental findings and hundreds of real-world cases for negotiating better outcomes for each involved party, while protecting relationships and reputation. A central tenet of the model, and the robust theory that underlies it, is that a vast majority of negotiations in the real world involve parties who have more than one goal or concern in mind, and more than one issue that can be addressed in the agreement they reach.
Large scale marine protected areas must avoid inequitable costs on developing States. In some contexts, this can be achieved through careful design and complementarity with fisheries management regimes to avoid significant reductions in fisheries revenue or impacts on local community livelihoods and food security, and financial investments to mitigate management costs. In other circumstances, rights based management frameworks can be utilised to share costs through the transferral of fishing effort with minimal impact on revenue.
The East Asian – Australasian Flyway Partnership brings together 33 national government agencies, inter-governmental and non-governmental organisations to conserve migratory waterbirds and their habitats for biodiversity and people throughout the 22 countries of the Flyway. A major objective of EAAFP is to identify a critical network of sites (the Flyway Site Network) that, if conserved and effectively managed, can support the continued migration of all waterbird species and groups into the future.
Biodiversity offsets offer a promising option for promoting the conservation and sustainable management of natural ecosystems on an expanded scale. In an era of often flat--and sometimes declining--governmental support for conservation in general and protected areas in particular, biodiversity offsets can provide an underutilized opportunity to mobilize substantial new funding. This funding can come from public infrastructure accounts (such as for dams and roads) as well as from the private sector (including extractive industries).
The Global Conservation Fund (GCF), at Conservation International, finances the creation, expansion and long-term management of priority areas for conservation. Made possible by a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the GCF has catalyzed more than US$ 200 million for protected area conservation. GCF investments have resulted in the creation and/or expansion of 77 protected areas, resulting in conservation of more than 80 million hectares (197 million acres) around the world.