During the “Urban National Parks in Emerging Countries” (UNPEC) research program, funded by the ANR (the french National Research Agency), the Urban Protected Areas Network have worked in partnership with the national parks and the cities in Rio, Cape Town, Mumbai, Nairobi. We have identified three main types of park’s dynamics:
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In Cusco, Peru, although there have been initiatives in establishing protected areas (currently 11% of the territory is protected), many fragile ecosystems are yet to be protected. However, many conservation initiatives have been undertaken by players that are not aware of the efforts by other players in many cases undermining the whole cause of nature conservation by creating conflicts.
This best practice story is intended to show how, through Empowering 18 communities, the good governance became a reality. El Núcleo Endógeno de Desarrollo Socialista de Suruguapo (NUDESUR) is located in Portuguesa state, Venezuela. NUDESUR was created in 2006, by 34 joined villages, 18 from the foot hills and 16 from the mountains, with the favor of the Energy and Oil Ministry (MPPEP – Barinas), the financial support of the national oil company (PDVSA-División Boyacá Barinas), and connecting with 22 other Regional and National organizations.
The ongoing project “Inter-jurisdictional System of Coastal-Marine Protected Areas” (ISCMPA-Argentina) seeks to circumvent the barriers that prevent the establishment of a system of coastal–marine protected areas (ISCMPA) that envisages conservation of biodiversity as a whole for the entire coastal-marine ecosystem of Argentina.
Financial mechanisms allow private sector to participate in conservation of biodiversity through corporate responsibility programs and corporate image positioning and complementing the financial sustainability for Protected Areas Systems. Private sector shows an interest in contributing to the development of programs of corporate social responsibility that focus either on social or environmental fields. However, there is still a need for coordination with the National Authorities for Protected Areas.
Alternative production systems such as pastures with trees, live fences, agroforestry and silvopastoral systems represent a significant potential as a strategy to mitigate the environmental impact of cattle ranching, to improve productivity, promote product diversification on farms, conservation biodiversity and contribute to adaptation and mitigation of climate change.
The money that countries spend to manage and maintain protected areas should not be considered an “expenditure” but an “investment.” This is not only a semantical issue, but also a conceptual and theoretical one. In general, countries, citizens, press, and ministers of finance praise the investment, but not the expenditure. For instance, in the case of the guards that work for these areas, should those salaries be considered as a general expenditure, or as an investment? If we do not pay for the guards, can we keep a protected area safe?
Nature tourism, as an alternative for the development of rural communities of the area of influence of Chingaza National Park (NP), is a conservation tool. It can help to address deforestation pressures on the paramo ecosystem, as a result of extensive livestock and expansion of the agricultural frontier, as well as manage and conserve private lands in the buffer zone through cooperative work agreements, conservation pacts, and training.
The Conservation International (CI) - BHP Billiton Alliance supports the delivery of enduring benefits to biodiversity, ecosystems and other environmental resources around the world. In 2013 BHP Billiton – one of the world’s leading diversified resources companies – voluntarily committed to financing the conservation and continuing management of areas of high biodiversity and ecosystem value that are of national and international conservation significance.
Protected areas, and the ecosystems and biodiversity within, provide many benefits for people. This includes protecting biodiversity’s intrinsic values, but also safeguarding the benefits people gain from them, such as the provision and regulation of water sources, and the climate benefits of stored carbon. Consequently, protected areas are now acknowledged as an important component of sustainable development. It is imperative to track and monitor networks of protected areas and their surroundings to ensure sustainable management of landscapes and seascapes.