Biodiversity conservation requires balancing trade-offs between biodiversity protection and economic activities. This applies both to protected areas, where the supply of various ecosystem services (e.g. carbon sequestration, water regulation) is seen as an important co-benefit, and not-protected areas, which also contain important elements of global biodiversity.
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Integrating local residents – especially poor households, indigenous communities and women – into the protected area economies of the developing world via concessions compensates for losses, alleviates poverty, drives local economic development and builds conservation incentives. Integrating locals is important not only as a principle of natural justice but also on pragmatic grounds.