Catastrophic declines in the Indian populations of three vulture species led to the discovery that they were being poisoned by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which they ingested when feeding on cattle carcasses. Despite a ban by the Indian Government in 2006, illegal use continued to kill vultures.
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The remarkable biodiversity of Jordan is a reflection of its varied physical characteristics which have yielded an unusual case of richness in landforms and biological diversity in terms of landscapes, ecosystems and species. At the intersection of three continents, Jordan encapsulates four bio-geographical regions: Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian, Saharo-Arabian, and the Sudanian Penetration. All four transform into 13 vegetation types which, in turn, embrace over 4,000 species of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine fauna and flora.
Voluntary standards, combined with independent certification, are widely used to ‘internalize’ social and environmental impacts in markets, offering recognition for producers and information for consumers. Multi-stakeholder roundtables exist for forest and agricultural commodities and fisheries, among others, with certified production gaining significant market share in some cases.
Strategic assessments provide the opportunity to identify and deliver regional conservation priorities and desired outcomes at a landscape scale with an explicit focus on ecologically sustainable development principles. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is the practice of environmental impact assessment at the planning, policy or regulation development stage. Strategic assessments provide an alternative approach to project by project environmental assessment to incorporate landscape scale assessment and multi-jurisdictional partnerships.