A conceptual framework based on accounting principles of stocks, flows, and investment can be applied to natural capital, social and cultural capital, human capital and financial and physical capitals. Development and application of this framework can help to reveal the environmental, social and economic impacts and interactions of prevailing land use (or other management) practices, and provide a way of assessing the effectiveness of different programmes for achieving desired management objectives.
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‘Wildlife-Friendly Ibis RiceTM’ is grown in the paddy fields of Preah Vihear province, on Cambodia’s Northern Plains. The Ibis RiceTM project aims to protect critically endangered birds and mammals, and prevent further loss of their habitat, which is being replaced by large and small-scale agriculture. Small-scale farmers from fifteen villages receive a price premium on their rice, in exchange for implementing conservation agreements. These limit the conversion of wetland areas to rice fields, and ban hunting of rare water birds.
Researchers and practitioners have extensively discussed the potential of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) strategies to help or harm forest-based communities, but less attention has been paid to the gender dimensions of this conservation intervention. Safeguard policies aim to ensure that REDD+ does not harm women, but interventions that do not seek to address gender imbalances at the outset could end up perpetuating them.
The System Plan for Thailand’s PAs is designed to enable the nation’s 370+protected sites to function as a coherent system that puts the entire network into its broader social, cultural, economic, and environmental context. It shows how to integrate protected areas into the 2012-2016 National Economic and Social Development Plan by communicating the multiple values of protected areas to national planning agencies, and to the many sectors whose activities can affect protected areas, or be affected by them.
The solution proposes to work with the Cambodian government to help reposition its protected area system as part of the means for realizing, rather than hindering, development objectives, in particular as they relate to poverty alleviation. Conservation International (CI) has completed a preliminary assessment that indicates 68 percent of Cambodia’s critical natural capital is still intact. Approximately 42 precent is covered by its protected area system.
Malaysia is a fast growing developing nation and has the aspiration to be a fully developed by 2020 as envisioned in her Vision 2020. Vision 2020 highlights the need for fostering a balanced development that is ecologically sustainable. Malaysia’s natural resource base has always had a significant contribution towards the economy. Even as the structure of the economy has transitioned towards being driven by services and manufacturing sectors the economy is still very much reliant on natural resources. The major contributor besides crude oil and natural gas is palm oil, timber and rubber.
Located in Quang Binh Province on Vietnam’s North Central Coast, Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (PNKB) was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003 for its unique geology and geomorphology. The Park also features a high level of biodiversity. The Park is managed by a National Park Management Board (NPMB). The Board is appointed by the Province which finances park operations and management. 65,000 people live in the 13 rural communities in the buffer zone of PNKB and including around 400 ethnic minority people living within the Park borders.
A combination of mandatory and voluntary HCV assessment has resulted in a larger proportion of forest concession areas being protected at landscape-level than elsewhere. A benefactor of this situation is Kampar Peninsula in Riau Province, Indonesia: one of the largest remaining peatland forest areas and home to a unique, bio-diverse peat swamp-forest environment. Asia Pacific Resources International Limited's (APRIL) efforts to protect the area’s peat dome through the implementation of a protective ‘plantation ring’ have proven an effective strategy.