We will highlight experiences doing research in the Makira Natural Park, northeastern Madagascar that investigated the ecosystem provisioning service value of wildlife as food and botanical ethnomedicines. Understanding the monetary value of faunal and floral biodiversity in this region may help to understand the local conservation psychology and what motivates people to harvest beyond the limits of sustainability. Specifically, our results provide an estimate of the cost of offsetting economic losses to local populations from the enforcement of conservation policies.
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To ensure the balance between development and conservation, government at national and local levels, businesses and local population must develop and implement suitable tools including policies, guidelines and plans. The development of these tools must be participatory for all stakeholders to own and use them efficiently. The value of PAs must be ascertained and incorporated into these tools in order to make wise trade-offs between conservation and development.
In alignment with national EIA regulations, and IFC performance standards on sustainability and the biodiversity conservation, Ambatovy and Qit Madagascar Mining have combined environmental and social impact assessments, a mitigation hierarchy and adaptive management to achieve “no net loss,” and preferably a net gain, for biodiversity.The mitigation hierarchy includes the processes of avoidance, minimization and restoration, with offsetting, to compensate for residual impacts.